The Coffee Roasting Process

Coffee Roasting

When it comes to coffee, roasting is a big deal and rightly so. By transforming the physical and chemical properties of the green coffee, roasting releases the sealed aroma and taste inside it, bringing out the flavor we crave. Once the right temperature is achieved, green coffee transforms into brown beans we see in commercial stores – the coffee we are familiar with. The once soft beans become hard and crunchy and with a bit more magic, become the elixir we all love.

How is roasting done?

After hulling, bags of green coffee beans are transported to roasting houses. But before they go through the actual roasting process, they are first screened to remove debris with the help of a hopper. Once sorted, the beans are then weighed and transferred to storage hoppers by a belt. From here, they are sent to the roaster and the roasting process finally begins.

The beginning of the roasting process is endothermic, meaning the beans are absorbing the heat. Roasters need to be mindful and sensitive to the changes taking place in the beans as they might need to adjust the temperature. When the heat reaches around 175 degrees Celsius, the beans begin to release the heat and the process becomes exothermic. Once the beans have been processed according to their roast level, they are transferred to an enclosure to be cooled quickly.

Several physical changes can be observed during the roasting process. But perhaps the most significant is the change is size –they become wider but lighter in weight due to the dehydration that takes place during the process. See, roasting releases water and other compounds, but the release of these chemicals result to the expansion of the cellulose making the beans wider.

It is important for a roaster to sense when the beans reach their required roast level. A matter of seconds will cause a big change to the taste and aroma of the beans. Hence, roasters need to have skills and expertise to come up with quality coffee.

Roast Level

The roast levels of coffee beans depend on the length they are roasted. There are four roast categories: light, medium, medium-dark, and dark. Coffee lovers have different preferences when it comes to roast level, and this is often because of geographical and cultural influences.

Light roast beans are brown and referred to as mildly-roasted. They tend to be dry to touch because the short roasting time does not permit the oil locked inside the beans to reach the surface. Some terms used to refer to light roast are Light City, Half City, and Cinnamon.

The medium roast will also result in brown non-oily beans, but the taste is stronger than the light roast. This type of beans is preferred in the United States; hence, it is often known as the American roast. Other names medium roast is referred to are City and Breakfast.

Medium dark roast beans have rich dark color and are slightly oily. They have a slight bittersweet taste. These beans are also called Full City by some roasters.

Dark roast beans are shiny, black, and oily. It has a definite bitter taste, but they are less acidic. The darker the beans are, the lesser their acidity level is. There are many names used to identify dark roast beans such as High, Continental, New Orleans, French, etc. Hence, to be sure, it is better to ask before you purchase.

Roasting with Phantom Series

After knowing how coffee beans are processed, it is good to choose your roaster to ensure a quality and desired level of roast will be achieved. Phantom Series coffee roasters offer an advanced system for controlling and monitoring the roasting process. With its PC-integrated technology, you can be sure to have Specialty Coffee easily. Along with the advanced technology comes its safety features too. You can be sure to minimise personal injuries and machine damages. When it comes to quality, Phantom Series uses high-caliber materials for a long-lasting efficiency. Contact us at +61-7-5529-0888 or send email to for more enquiries.

Coffee – From The Plant To Your Cup!

Coffee Berries

With every sip, a coffee lover falls deeper and deeper in love with his cup of coffee which hard as it is to sometimes believe, began as a seed, then a plant, and finally a bean. With the delicate processes these beans have to go through, it’s no wonder that they do not just taste good but also beneficial to our well-being. Let’s discover how a seed becomes a source not just of energy but also happiness to many.

Plant and Harvest

Coffee seeds need to receive appropriate care for them to grow into a quality bean. For starters, seedlings need to have plenty of water, but not too much sunlight. Hence, watering them needs to be done often and mindfully at that. Farmers also use shade to protect the plants from direct sunlight. Once matured, they are transferred to a moist soil to be permanently planted.

The fertility of newly planted trees depends on its variety, but they may bear fruits in about 4 years. Coffee cherries which are the fruits of a coffee tree, can be harvested when their color becomes a bright deep red. Harvest happens once a year, but there are countries that harvest twice. There are two ways of harvesting coffee cherries: strip or selective picking.

From the word itself, strip picking is the stripping of all cherries off a branch either by hand or with the use of a machine. On the other hand, selective picking is done manually because the pickers are selective and will pick only the fruits at the peak of their ripeness.

After collecting all the harvest, the coffee cherries are then transported to be processed.


Coffee harvests should be processed as quickly as possible to maintain their freshness, and there are two ways to process them: the dry method and the wet method.

The Dry Method is laying down the coffee cherries directly under the sun. The cherries will be turned over several times during the day and be covered at night or during rainy days to avoid spoilage. Drying will continue for many weeks until the moisture content drops to 11%.

The Wet Method is done with the help of a pulping machine which will remove the skin and pulp of the bean. The beans are then separated according to their sizes and weight. Lighter beans will float to the top of the water channels, while the heavier ripe beans will sink to the bottom. Once the best beans have been extracted from the batch of harvest, they will be stored in large fermentation tanks filled with water for 12 to 48 hours. Enzymes that naturally occur during fermentation will dissolve the remaining layer of the beans. After fermentation, the beans will feel rough, be rinsed, and dried either by the sun or by a machine.

Dried beans are referred to as parchment coffee and are milled in three steps –from hulling, to polishing, and to grading and sorting. Hulling is the removal of the entire dried husk of the coffee bean. Polishing is another step, although optional, to remove any silver skin left on the bean after hulling. Lastly, grading and sorting are done to carefully choose the beans without any color flaws or imperfections and separate them according to size and weight.

The milled beans, now referred to as green coffee, are stored in sacks to be transported.


Green beans are chemically and physically transformed into brown coffee beans. The beans move in a continuous one direction until the desired roast level is achieved. The flavor and distinct smell that the coffee beans produce is because of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis allows the bean’s fragrant oil, known as caffeol, to rise to the surface once the temperature reaches 400 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature also turns the green color of the beans to brown.

Software such as the Coffee Sweet Prosweet is also utilised during the roasting process to closely monitor the roast level and many of the other subtle factors that apply to roasting coffee.

Roasting with Phantom Series

There are many state-of-the-art coffee roasters developed along with advances in technology. When it comes to superior roasting, the Phantom Series is in the lead having the most advanced PC integrated system. With its 3 phase motors and gearboxes from Italy and Omron and Schneider Electrical components, you can be sure that it is of high quality and would last for many years.

When it comes to performance, heat transfer for optimum roasting can be achieved because of its double wall carbon steel wall design with gaps that are 3mm apart. No need to allot time for cooling as roasting and cooling are done simultaneously, helping roasters keep up with the demand. The roasting process can also be monitored through the viewing glass.

Adapting to automated era, Phantom Series offers automatic loading of coffee into the drum with its automatic hopper door with electric actuator. Surprisingly, the operation is quiet because a compressor is not required. Operation settings can also be saved for future roastings thanks to its memory function. And in case of system issues, PC connection can be done as a backup plan.

Safety is also equally important in designing the Phantom Series. Temperature monitoring is done through 5 independent thermocouples. A cyclone water sprinkler is also available when things go wrong. All automated doors are covered and protected by the hinged cooling tray to avoid accidents while the process is running. Maintenance and repair might trouble you because of the Phantom Series’ advanced issues, but nothing to worry as all main serviceable areas and components are available.

To enquire about the Phantom Series Roasters, please call +61 7 5529 0888 or send a message through the online Enquire Now form.

Grinding and Brewing
Once coffee beans are perfectly roasted, they are ready for grinding. The grinding process gets the most of the flavor from the beans; while brewing controls the coarseness of the coffee grounds.

The process of converting a seed to a brewed drink that you pour into your cup may look like a tedious process, but with the pleasant aroma and flavor that quality coffee beans offer, all the hard work is worth it.

Coffee Roasting Through the Years

Horizontal Old Spoon Coffee Shell Pan Beans

For many people, there is no better way to kick-start a busy day with a cup of coffee. It’s truly a wonder how these small beans can have such an effect on a person. Coffee has been enjoyed for many generations, but do we really know how these beans are processed for our drinking pleasure?

The Beginning

There are various stories about the origin of coffee, the most commonly accepted is as follows. A man almost starved to death in a desert but decided to eat berries. He found these berries to be unbearably bitter, hence, he tried to lessen the harsh taste by cooking them. However, bare cooking made the beans harder and impossible to consume. That was when he tried to add water and that was how coffee beans started to transform from a bitter bean to a cup of joyful drink.

The Evolution

Scientifically speaking, roasting coffee entails converting coffee beans into a roasted coffee product by chemical and physical alterations. The taste of the green coffee beans changes during the roasting process. Very thin pans were the first documented tools to be used in roasting coffee during the 15th century. During this time, the beans needed to be stirred occasionally and help manually; hence, only a small amount of roasted coffee was produced. It was in the 16th century when a cylinder roaster was invented making it easier to roast coffee because beans move in a continuous circular motion. There was no need to stir it, and more beans were produced.

It was in the 18th century when the first large roasting machine was introduced leading to the progress of the roasted coffee’s fame. From waiting for a longer time to roast coffee beans in open fire and ovens, the advancement of roasting gave way to a much shorter 20-minute process by the end of the 18th century. Roasted coffee has gained loyal consumers despite the arrival of instant coffee in the mid-90s. Specialty coffee houses and gourmet coffee recipes continuously produce everyone’s favorite quality roasted coffee.

Modern Day

Home roasting has started to fade in popularity but is recently reviving. Coffee purists prefer roasting their own small batches of beans to control the process and achieve their desired taste. The total processing time has greatly shortened. Advanced insulation mechanism is also available in modern roasters to retain heat and quickly roast coffee beans. Glass equipment will also allow one to view the beans as they are being processed. More importantly, roasters have an internal cooling system for the drinker’s to quickly divulge in their coffee’s great taste. These mentioned advanced capabilities are all available in the Phantom Series Roasters.

Phantom Series coffee roasters are known for their most advanced roasting system. Looking for an equipment to ensure superior control and monitoring roasting, Phantom Series have it covered for you with their PC integrated roasting system. One might wonder that this machine would be big in sizes, but these coffee roasters have also compact designs and come in two sizes: 7KG and 22 KG. To enquire about their advanced, high-quality roasters, dial +61 7 5529 0888 or send an email to You can also know more about their products by visiting

The Phantom Series is here to impress

Phantom Series 22kg Full Line Coffee Roaster

It is said that “necessity is the mother of invention”. Imported roasters coming into Australia often had to be heavily modified to pass national standards but with the arrival of the Phantom Series, things are about to change in a big way.

The Phantom Series comes in three sizes: the 7kg, 22kg, and the 22kg Full Line. Manufactured on the Gold Coast, these machines are equipped with the most advanced PC integrated roasting making controlling and monitoring a breeze. There is a lot of dedication involved in making specialty coffee and these roasters are specifically designed to accommodate. To top it all off, it’s stylish and does not take up too much space.

Performance and Technology

Phantom 22kg Close upAll units from the Phantom Series come with a double wall carbon steel drum that aids in homogenous roasting and to avoid bean tipping. And, they have the ability to cool within 2-3 minutes. This snappy feature allows you to roast and cool at the same time, which speeds up production.  Designed with an efficient cyclone and a detachable chaff bucket with a level site inspection window, it’s easy to check Drum Roasting, Burner Flame, and Hopper level on the new Phantom Roasters. The quality of the coffee can be inspected via the coffee sampler. For the 7kg unit, adding an afterburner or a destoner would not be difficult as the machine is designed to accommodate such modifications.

The larger 22kg model comes with a green coffee loading system, floor vacuum, and dust filter. And the 22kg Full Line is fitted with a stainless steel destoner and a silo with a 45kg capacity. Destoning can be completed in 3-4 minutes with this unit. A special software is used to control the cycle time. Drum, cooling smoke, and odour emissions are treated by a powerful afterburner.

All these roasters can operate quietly without the need for a compressor. A software called Coffee Sweet was specially designed for these roasters. With 3 independent processors, it is 8 times faster compared to other machines. And, whenever computer issues are encountered, owners can rely on their PCs for the backup data. That said, it has a pretty powerful memory and can store 150 profiles that can be automated. The burner and the drum fan have 5 automation options that allow control in small increments for meticulous roasting. The afterburner can also be controlled through the software to help you save on gas. For those who want more of a human touch in their roasting, a full manual override control is possible.

Phantom Series Coffee Roaster full line setup

View the full specifications for all 3 roaster models here.


No matter how many functions roasters come with, it all boils down to the safety of using it. The Phantom Series has passed the AGA Type B Gas and Electrical Standard that is quite strict. The over temperature of the 5 thermocouples and the cyclone water sprinkler can be monitored in the machine. That said, it is considered to be safest in the market. Maintenance of the units is easy because each of the main serviceable parts are accessible.

More Information

A Phantom Series unit is now in action at SOHO Coffee Roasters in Adelaide and local coffee drinkers are loving it. To find out more about The Phantom Series machines, get in touch with Mark Beattie and the team at CRA Technology today.

Roast By Yili & Phantom

Yili Wang with Phantom Coffee Roaster

2 time Golden Bean winner Yili Wang with his new Phantom 7kg Coffee Roaster delivered yesterday. Yili has recently rebranded his coffee to Roast by Yili. We think the new branding looks great!

We have known Yili for a long time and followed his progress into one of Australia’s top roastmasters.

Yili plans to use the Phantom for roasting his high end speciality coffee origins.

Roast by Yili

The Phantom 22kg installed at Coffee Works

Father and son Rob & Roland Webber from the Coffee Works

Father and son Rob and Roland Webber are at the forefront of the Australian coffee industry. Rob and his wife run a thriving coffee business in the heartland of Australia’s most prolific growing region in Australia, The Coffeeworks in Mareeba, North Queensland. Roasting almost exclusively Australian origins, this 30 year business is a must visit for anyone travelling to North Queensland.

They do everything from roasting coffee, running a cafe and gift shop to making gourmet chocolate on site. One of the highlights of The Coffee Works is the most extensive and interactive coffee equipment museum in the Southern Hemisphere. An incredible and fully catalogued museum of coffee history!

Rob is one of the most knowledgable coffee professionals in Australia with a passion for improving and promoting Australian grown coffee. We recently installed the Phantom Series 22kg coffee roasting line at The Coffee Works. Have a look at some of the installation pictures below!

The Phantom 22kg Roaster

Commercial coffee roaster at The Coffee Works

Installation of the Phantom Coffee Roaster

You can buy the amazing blends from The Coffee Works online too – check out their website here.

We’re Featured in Café Culture International

coffee beans

With the launch of the CRA Technology site and the new Phantom Series commercial coffee roasters, we were recently featured on the Café Culture International site.

The article gave Mark the opportunity to talk about the Phantom Series, as well as the research and development that went into the new roaster.

“My aim was to develop something I would enjoy roasting on, as I knew if I could satisfy my own high standards I would hopefully satisfy the market,” Mark said.

Café Culture International specialises in the networking and marketing needs of the café and coffee industry. They’re a great source of information on the latest developments in the industry, as well as information resources for everyone from roasters to café owners and barista staff.

Read the full article here.

CRA Technology Has Officially Launched

Phantom Series Coffee Roasters

After years of operating as the home of Coffee Roasters Australia’s IP, designs, technology and products, we’ve now launched CRA Technology with it’s own website.

Alana and Mark Beattie started Coffee Roasters Australia over 15 years ago, focusing on the supply of coffee roasting equipment for Australian roasters. They saw the specialty coffee roasting industry develop in Australia and began catering to that market with their own destoners, after burners and control systems.

Along with the launch of the new website, CRA Technology has also released their new Phantom Series coffee roasters. The Phantom Series has the most advanced PC integrated roasting control system on the market, giving commercial roasters full control over the roast process.

These advanced new roasters have hit the market after years of research and development, as Mark worked with Griffith University’s Engineering Department to develop something that meets both his and the market’s high standards.

The Phantom Series is currently available in a 7kg and a 22kg format. While the 7kg model is compact and ideal for smaller, boutique roasting sites, the 22kg format can be put together as a fully integrated line, complete with loader, destoner and afterburner.

Head to the home page to find out more about the Phantom Series Roasters, including the performance specifications, automation options, controls and safety features.

For more information, you can contact us on +61 7 5529 0888, or fill out the below enquiry form and we’ll contact you.